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Each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead. They also reveal an independent Bali, with a distinct dialect, where Buddhism and Sivaism were practiced simultaneously. Mpu Sindok 's great-granddaughter, Mahendradatta Gunapriyadharmapatni , married the Bali king Udayana Warmadewa Dharmodayanavarmadeva around , giving birth to Airlangga around This marriage also brought more Hinduism and Javanese culture to Bali. Princess Sakalendukirana appeared in Suradhipa reigned from to , and Jayasakti from until Jayapangus appears on inscriptions between and , while Adikuntiketana and his son Paramesvara in The name Bali dwipa "Bali island" has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in AD and mentioning Walidwipa. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system subak to grow rice in wet-field cultivation. Some religious and cultural traditions still practiced today can be traced to this period. The uncle of Hayam Wuruk is mentioned in the charters of — A mass Javanese immigration to Bali occurred in the next century when the Majapahit Empire fell in The nation with various kingdoms became independent for up to years until , when the Dutch subjugated and repulsed the natives for economic control and took it over. Historically, Balinese art and culture is born and based in this town. It was the first expedition of a series of bi-annual fleets to the Moluccas, that throughout the 16th century usually traveled along the coasts of the Sunda Islands. Bali was also mapped in , in the chart of Francisco Rodrigues, aboard the expedition. The Dutch government expanded its control across the Indonesian archipelago during the second half of the 19th century see Dutch East Indies. Dutch political and economic control over Bali began in the s on the island's north coast, when the Dutch pitted various competing Balinese realms against each other. In June , the famous Welsh naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace , travelled to Bali from Singapore, landing at Buleleng on the north coast of the island. Wallace's trip to Bali was instrumental in helping him devise his Wallace Line theory. The Wallace Line is a faunal boundary that runs through the strait between Bali and Lombok. It has been found to be a boundary between species. In his travel memoir The Malay Archipelago , Wallace wrote of his experience in Bali, of which has strong mention of the unique Balinese irrigation methods: I was both astonished and delighted; for as my visit to Java was some years later, I had never beheld so beautiful and well-cultivated a district out of Europe. A slightly undulating plain extends from the seacoast about ten or twelve miles 16 or 19 kilometres inland, where it is bounded by a fine range of wooded and cultivated hills. Houses and villages, marked out by dense clumps of coconut palms , tamarind and other fruit trees, are dotted about in every direction; while between them extend luxurious rice-grounds, watered by an elaborate system of irrigation that would be the pride of the best cultivated parts of Europe. Afterward the Dutch governors exercised administrative control over the island, but local control over religion and culture generally remained intact. Dutch rule over Bali came later and was never as well established as in other parts of Indonesia such as Java and Maluku. Their accounts of the island and its peoples created a western image of Bali as "an enchanted land of aesthetes at peace with themselves and nature. It was not originally a target in their Netherlands East Indies Campaign, but as the airfields on Borneo were inoperative due to heavy rains, the Imperial Japanese Army decided to occupy Bali, which did not suffer from comparable weather. On 19 February the Japanese forces landed near the town of Senoer [Senur]. The island was quickly captured. The harshness of Japanese occupation forces made them more resented than the Dutch colonial rulers. Bali was included in the "Republic of the United States of Indonesia" when the Netherlands recognised Indonesian independence on 29 December Mirroring the widening of social divisions across Indonesia in the s and early s, Bali saw conflict between supporters of the traditional caste system , and those rejecting this system. The army became the dominant power as it instigated a violent anti-communist purge , in which the army blamed the PKI for the coup. His "New Order" government reestablished relations with western countries. The pre-War Bali as "paradise" was revived in a modern form. The resulting large growth in tourism has led to a dramatic increase in Balinese standards of living and significant foreign exchange earned for the country. This attack, and another in , severely reduced tourism, producing much economic hardship to the island. List of bodies of water in Bali and List of mountains in Bali Mount Agung , the highest peak on Bali An islet just south of Bali made of pillow basalt. Much of Bali is made of volcanic rock. The island of Bali lies 3. Bali and Java are separated by the Bali Strait. Bali's central mountains include several peaks over 2, metres 6, feet in elevation and active volcanoes such as Mount Batur. The extent of the eruption is as of November impossible to predict. Bali's volcanic nature has contributed to its exceptional fertility and its tall mountain ranges provide the high rainfall that supports the highly productive agriculture sector. South of the mountains is a broad, steadily descending area where most of Bali's large rice crop is grown. The northern side of the mountains slopes more steeply to the sea and is the main coffee producing area of the island, along with rice, vegetables and cattle. The island is surrounded by coral reefs. Beaches in the south tend to have white sand while those in the north and west have black sand. Bali has no major waterways, although the Ho River is navigable by small sampan boats. Black sand beaches between Pasut and Klatingdukuh are being developed for tourism, but apart from the seaside temple of Tanah Lot , they are not yet used for significant tourism. Subak irrigation system The largest city is the provincial capital, Denpasar , near the southern coast. Its population is around , Bali's second-largest city is the old colonial capital, Singaraja , which is located on the north coast and is home to around , people. These islands are separated from Bali by the Badung Strait. To the east, the Lombok Strait separates Bali from Lombok and marks the biogeographical division between the fauna of the Indomalayan ecozone and the distinctly different fauna of Australasia. The transition is known as the Wallace Line , named after Alfred Russel Wallace , who first proposed a transition zone between these two major biomes. When sea levels dropped during the Pleistocene ice age , Bali was connected to Java and Sumatra and to the mainland of Asia and shared the Asian fauna, but the deep water of the Lombok Strait continued to keep Lombok Island and the Lesser Sunda archipelago isolated. Climate[ edit ] Being just 8 degrees south of the equator, Bali has a fairly even climate year round. The west monsoon is in place from approximately October to April, and this can bring significant rain, particularly from December to March. During rainy season there is comparatively fewer tourists seen on Bali. During the Easter and Christmas holidays the weather is very unpredictable. Outside of the monsoon period, humidity is relatively low and any rain is unlikely in lowland areas. Ecology[ edit ] The Bali myna is found only on Bali and is critically endangered. Bali lies just to the west of the Wallace Line ,  and thus has a fauna that is Asian in character, with very little Australasian influence, and has more in common with Java than with Lombok. There are around species of birds, including the critically endangered Bali myna , which is endemic. Others include barn swallow , black-naped oriole , black racket-tailed treepie , crested serpent-eagle , crested treeswift , dollarbird , Java sparrow , lesser adjutant , long-tailed shrike , milky stork , Pacific swallow , red-rumped swallow , sacred kingfisher , sea eagle , woodswallow , savanna nightjar , stork-billed kingfisher , yellow-vented bulbul and great egret. Until the early 20th century, Bali was home to several large mammals: The banteng still occurs in its domestic form, whereas leopards are found only in neighbouring Java, and the Bali tiger is extinct. The last definite record of a tiger on Bali dates from , when one was shot, though the subspecies may have survived until the s or s. Bats are well represented, perhaps the most famous place to encounter them remaining is the Goa Lawah Temple of the Bats where they are worshipped by the locals and also constitute a tourist attraction. They also occur in other cave temples, for instance at Gangga Beach. Two species of monkey occur. The crab-eating macaque , known locally as "kera", is quite common around human settlements and temples, where it becomes accustomed to being fed by humans, particularly in any of the three "monkey forest" temples, such as the popular one in the Ubud area. They are also quite often kept as pets by locals. The second monkey, endemic to Java and some surrounding islands such as Bali, is far rarer and more elusive and is the Javan langur , locally known as "lutung". They occur in few places apart from the Bali Barat National Park. They are born an orange colour, though by their first year they would have already changed to a more blackish colouration. Other rarer mammals include the leopard cat , Sunda pangolin and black giant squirrel. Snakes include the king cobra and reticulated python. The water monitor can grow to at least 1. Giant manta ray in Bali A team of scientists conducted a survey from 29 April to 11 May at 33 sea sites around Bali. They discovered species of reef fish of which 8 were new discoveries at Pemuteran , Gilimanuk , Nusa Dua , Tulamben and Candidasa , and coral species, including two new ones at Padangbai and between Padangbai and Amed. Numerous flowers can be seen: On higher grounds that receive more moisture, for instance around Kintamani , certain species of fern trees, mushrooms and even pine trees thrive well. Rice comes in many varieties. Other plants with agricultural value include: Decades ago, this beach was used for holy pilgrimages with more than 10, people, but they have now moved to Masceti Beach. The score measured three water quality parameters: The litres capacity of water per second will be channelled to Denpasar, Badung and Gianyar in
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