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A thicket of wild cannabis in Islamabad , Pakistan. Cannabis is an annual , dioecious , flowering herb. The leaves are palmately compound or digitate , with serrate leaflets. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant. The leaves have a peculiar and diagnostic venation pattern that enables persons poorly familiar with the plant to distinguish a cannabis leaf from unrelated species that have confusingly similar leaves see illustration. As is common in serrated leaves, each serration has a central vein extending to its tip. However, the serration vein originates from lower down the central vein of the leaflet, typically opposite to the position of, not the first notch down, but the next notch. This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close by the intervening notch. Sometimes the vein will actually pass tangent to the notch, but often it will pass by at a small distance, and when that happens a spur vein occasionally a pair of such spur veins branches off and joins the leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch. This venation pattern varies slightly among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell Cannabis leaves from superficially similar leaves without difficulty and without special equipment. Tiny samples of Cannabis plants also can be identified with precision by microscopic examination of leaf cells and similar features, but that requires special expertise and equipment. Cannabis is predominantly dioecious ,   having imperfect flowers , with staminate "male" and pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants. Subdioecy the occurrence of monoecious individuals and dioecious individuals within the same population is widespread. Dioecious varieties are also preferred for textile fiber production, whereas monoecious varieties are preferred for pulp and paper production. It has been suggested that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate licit crops of monoecious hemp from illicit drug crops. Cannabis flower with visible trichomes Male Cannabis flower buds Sex determination Cannabis has been described as having one of the most complicated mechanisms of sex determination among the dioecious plants. Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp , it was first reported by K. Hirata in that an XY sex-determination system is present. A system was first described in Drosophila spp in A system was in use and that furthermore sex was strongly influenced by environmental conditions. In most cases where the XY system is found it is believed to have evolved recently and independently. Cannabis was one of the first plant species to be karyotyped; however, this was in a period when karyotype preparation was primitive by modern standards see History of Cytogenetics. Heteromorphic sex chromosomes were reported to occur in staminate individuals of dioecious "Kentucky" hemp, but were not found in pistillate individuals of the same variety. Dioecious "Kentucky" hemp was assumed to use an XY mechanism. Heterosomes were not observed in analyzed individuals of monoecious "Kentucky" hemp, nor in an unidentified German cultivar. These varieties were assumed to have sex chromosome composition XX. In dioecious plants where sex chromosomes have not been identified, markers for maleness indicate either the presence of sex chromosomes which have not been distinguished by cytological methods or that the marker is tightly linked to a gene involved in sex determination. Cannabinoids , terpenoids , and other compounds are secreted by glandular trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes and bracts of female plants. Root system side view Micrograph C. Cannabis plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds called cannabinoids, some of which produce the "high" which may be experienced from consuming marijuana. There are identifiable chemical constituents known to exist in the cannabis plant,  and at least 85 different cannabinoids have been isolated from the plant. When plants of these two chemotypes cross-pollinate, the plants in the first filial F1 generation have an intermediate chemotype and produce intermedite amounts of CBD and THC. Female plants of this chemotype may produce enough THC to be utilized for drug production. This is a contentious issue because there is no universally accepted definition of a species. Linnaeus was familiar with European hemp, which was widely cultivated at the time. In , noted evolutionary biologist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis, which he named Cannabis indica Lam. Additional Cannabis species were proposed in the 19th century, including strains from China and Vietnam Indo-China assigned the names Cannabis chinensis Delile, and Cannabis gigantea Delile ex Vilmorin. In the early 20th century, the single-species concept was still widely accepted, except in the Soviet Union where Cannabis continued to be the subject of active taxonomic study. The name Cannabis indica was listed in various Pharmacopoeias , and was widely used to designate Cannabis suitable for the manufacture of medicinal preparations. Janichevsky concluded that ruderal Cannabis in central Russia is either a variety of C. Serebriakova and Sizov split the two C. However, they did not divide C. Enterprising attorneys for the defense in a few drug busts argued that the seized Cannabis material may not have been C. Attorneys on both sides recruited botanists to provide expert testimony. Among those testifying for the prosecution was Dr. Ernest Small, while Dr. Schultes and others testified for the defense. The botanists engaged in heated debate outside of court , and both camps impugned the other's integrity. Within these two subspecies, Small and Cronquist described C. This classification was based on several factors including interfertility, chromosome uniformity, chemotype, and numerical analysis of phenotypic characters. Schultes and coworkers also conducted taxonomic studies of Cannabis in the s, and concluded that stable morphological differences exist that support recognition of at least three species, C. This taxonomic interpretation was embraced by Cannabis aficionados who commonly distinguish narrow-leafed "sativa" strains from wide-leafed "indica" strains. This has resulted in many reclassifications based on evolutionary systematics. Several studies of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA RAPD and other types of genetic markers have been conducted on drug and fiber strains of Cannabis, primarily for plant breeding and forensic purposes. Hillig, a graduate student in the laboratory of long-time Cannabis researcher Paul G. Mahlberg  at Indiana University , conducted a systematic investigation of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation among Cannabis accessions of known geographic origin, including fiber, drug, and feral populations. In , Hillig and Mahlberg published a chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in their Cannabis germplasm collection. They used gas chromatography to determine cannabinoid content and to infer allele frequencies of the gene that controls CBD and THC production within the studied populations, and concluded that the patterns of cannabinoid variation support recognition of C. Narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug accessions, southern and eastern Asian hemp accessions, and feral Himalayan populations were assigned to C. In , Hillig published a genetic analysis of the same set of accessions this paper was the first in the series, but was delayed in publication , and proposed a three-species classification, recognizing C. He also concluded there is little support to treat C. In September , New Scientist reported that researchers at the Canberra Institute of Technology had identified a new type of Cannabis based on analysis of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA. Cannabis aficionados recognize three distinct types based on such factors as morphology, native range , aroma, and subjective psychoactive characteristics. Sativa is the most widespread variety, which is usually tall, laxly branched, and found in warm lowland regions. Indica designates shorter, bushier plants adapted to cooler climates and highland environments. Ruderalis is the informal name for the short plants that grow wild in Europe and central Asia. Uses Cannabis is used for a wide variety of purposes. History The use of Cannabis as a mind-altering drug has been documented by archaeological finds in prehistoric societies in Eurasia and Africa. In , cannabis spread to the western hemisphere where Spaniards imported it to Chile for its use as fiber. In North America, cannabis, in the form of hemp, was grown for use in rope, clothing and paper. In the United States alone, it is believed that over million Americans have tried cannabis, with 25 million Americans having used it within the past year. Primary psychoactive effects include a state of relaxation, and to a lesser degree, euphoria from its main psychoactive compound, tetrahydrocannabinol. Secondary psychoactive effects, such as a facility for philosophical thinking, introspection and metacognition have been reported among cases of anxiety and paranoia. Normal cognition is restored after approximately three hours for larger doses via a smoking pipe , bong or vaporizer. After 24 hours to a few days, minuscule psychoactive effects may be felt, depending on dosage, frequency and tolerance to the drug. Various forms of the drug cannabis exist, including extracts such as hashish and hash oil  which, because of appearance, are more susceptible to adulterants when left unregulated. Cannabidiol CBD , which has no psychotropic effects by itself  although sometimes showing a small stimulant effect, similar to caffeine ,  attenuates, or reduces  the higher anxiety levels caused by THC alone. Medical cannabis Medical cannabis or medical marijuana refers to the use of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids , to treat disease or improve symptoms. Hemp fiber was commonly used in the production of paper from BCE to the late 's. Cannabis industrial uses Cannabis sativa stem longitudinal section The term hemp is used to name the durable soft fiber from the Cannabis plant stem stalk. Cannabis sativa cultivars are used for fibers due to their long stems; Sativa varieties may grow more than six metres tall. However, hemp can refer to any industrial or foodstuff product that is not intended for use as a drug. Many countries regulate limits for psychoactive compound THC concentrations in products labeled as hemp. Cannabis for industrial uses is valuable in tens of thousands of commercial products, especially as fibre  ranging from paper , cordage , construction material and textiles in general, to clothing. Hemp is stronger and longer-lasting than cotton. It also is a useful source of foodstuffs hemp milk, hemp seed, hemp oil and biofuels. Hemp has been used by many civilizations, from China to Europe and later North America during the last 12, years. He is thought to have belonged to the Jushi culture recorded in the area centuries later in the Hanshu , Chap 96B. An international team demonstrated that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol , the psychoactive component of cannabis. The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination. This is the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent. By the 10th century CE, it has been suggested that it was referred to by some in India as "food of the gods". One of the earliest to use this plant in medical purposes was Korakkar , one of the 18 Siddhas. In ancient Germanic culture , Cannabis was associated with the Norse love goddess, Freya. Rastafarians tend to be among the biggest consumers of modern Cannabis use. Cannabis is frequently used among Sufis  — the mystical interpretation of Islam that exerts strong influence over local Muslim practices in Bangladesh , India , Indonesia , Turkey , and Pakistan. Cannabis preparations are frequently used at Sufi festivals in those countries.
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