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Verge - Chains (Sex & Violence)
Messenger Conventional wisdom has long held that sex sells in advertising. Advertisers often use sexual ads under the assumption that they attract attention and, therefore, are an effective way to promote products and services. Likewise, conventional wisdom has long held that violence sells on television. In these two contexts, conventional wisdom is partially correct. Sexual ads do attract attention. Violent programs do attract viewers. However, there is an important caveat: In other words, could it be that sexual ads attract attention to the sex itself, but not the product, and that violent programs attract attention to the violence itself, but not the product? To find out, my PhD advisor Brad Bushman and I conducted a meta-analysis , or quantitative review, of existing studies in these areas. There were 53 studies that qualified for inclusion, involving a total of 8, participants. We examined two possible media contexts for sex and violence: We looked at the effects of those two media contexts on three outcomes that are often used to quantify successful advertising: We hypothesized that advertising and programs using sex or violence would actually decrease brand memory, brand attitudes and buying intentions. Because people pay more attention to violence and sex, both in programs and in the ads themselves, we thought the actual products being advertised would become less salient. Ultimately we found almost no evidence that violent and sexual programs and ads increased their effectiveness. Except when media content and ad content occurred together which was examined in only a few studies , these measures of ad effectiveness were either negative or insignificant. So why might this be the case? Attending to violent cues prevented our evolutionary ancestors from being killed by enemies or predators, while attending to sexual cues attuned our evolutionary ancestors to potential opportunities for reproduction. On the other hand, because attention is a limited resource, attention to other nonsexual or nonviolent cues is impaired when sexual or violent cues are present in the same visual environment. So in the case of advertisements, while attention may be glued to certain violent or sexual content on a screen or billboard, the brand itself — its name, its logo — fades to the periphery. From a practical standpoint, this suggests that advertisers may not get the best return on investment by advertising in violent or sexual contexts. Although such contexts may attract large audiences, the apparent advantages of more overall viewers may be offset by lower brand memory, less favorable attitudes and lower buying intentions. Of course, there are some caveats to this conclusion. We did account for the few studies that addressed video game advertising, but internet advertising and mobile advertising have grown tremendously in recent years. How these results generalize to new contexts should be borne out in the future. Nevertheless, our results have timely practical implications for advertisers.
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